Journal : Aquaculture , vol. 569 , p. 1–13 , 2023
Publisher : Elsevier
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 0044-8486
Electronic : 1873-5622
Publication type : Academic article
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Cell walls of microalgae differ both in terms of chemical composition and architecture. Certain characteristics of cell walls limit both the effectiveness of extraction of valuable constituents and nutrient bioavailability and bioaccessibility in fish. We first investigated the potential of bead milling to disrupt cell walls to improve extractability of bioactive compounds from Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis chui. We also evaluated the effect of the mechanical treatment on i) digestibility of nutrients in the two microalgae and ii) fatty acid and pigment content of fillet of Atlantic salmon fed the algae diets. Cell wall disruption facilitated efficient release of total phenolic compounds (TPC), chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and total carotenoids from both microalgae species, but increased only the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of T. chuii. The polyphenol profile varied between the two species; we identified 2 and 6 polyphenols from P. tricornutum and T. chui, respectively. For the feeding experiment, microalgae biomass, intact or cell wall disrupted (90.7 and 76.4% disruption degree for T. chui and P. tricornutum, respectively), were mixed with the other feed ingredients. Atlantic salmon (315 g start weight / 55 fish per tank) were fed one of the five extruded experimental diets (a fishmeal-based reference diet and four feeds with 30% of the whole or broken microalgae biomass added to the reference diet). The digestibility of protein in the P. tricornutum was significantly higher compared to that of T. chui. Breaking the cell walls by bead milling caused a significant improvement in digestibility of protein in T. chui. The apparent digestibility coefficient of lipid was higher in P. tricornutum and bead milling improved the digestibility of the two algae. However, bead milling did not favourably change the fatty acid profile of Atlantic salmon. At the end of the feeding trial, P. tricornutum-fed fish had significantly improved pigmentation, probably due to the higher content of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol compared to the fish fed the reference diet. The main conclusion from the mechanical processing of the microalgae is that bead milling can increase i) the extractability of polyphenols and pigments, ii) the digestibility of lipid in both algae while the effect on protein was improved only for T. chui. Furthermore, P. tricornutum can be considered a natural pigment source in the feeds of Atlantic salmon.