Published 2022

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Publication details

Journal : Aquaculture Nutrition , p. 1–15 , 2022

Publisher : Blackwell Publishing

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 1353-5773
Electronic : 1365-2095

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Hamre, Kristin; Berge, Gerd Marit; Sæle, Øystein; Holen, Elisabeth; Kousoulaki, Aikaterina; Remø, Sofie C.; Krogdahl, Åshild; Lein, Ingrid

Research areas

Feed development and nutrition

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The aim of this study was to investigate how the dietary balance between protein, lipid, and carbohydrate affects growth, welfare, and health with focus on immune responses, in lumpfish of body weight ranges 1.7-10 g and 15-50 g. A three-component mixture design, with simultaneous variation of the three macronutrients was applied. Growth, tissue and plasma nutrient composition, welfare, cataract frequency, and immune responses in leukocytes isolated from the fish head kidney were studied. Most responses were linear and driven by dietary lipid level, with minor effects of carbohydrate and protein. The growth in 1.7-10 g fish followed a special cubic model with no clear optimum. The fastest growth in the 15-50 g fish was obtained with the diet containing 55% protein, 17% fat, and 6% carbohydrate. The high dietary levels of lipid also gave high lipid levels in the tissues and a trend of improved welfare score, but there were no effects on cataract. The diets with minimum and maximum protein gave suboptimal immune responses in isolated head kidney cells of the 15-50 g fish, while the fastest growing fish showed normal immune responses. We propose that diets for lumpfish from 10-50 g body weight should contain approximately 55% protein, minimum 10% lipid, and maximum 10% carbohydrate. These diets will also be suitable for lumpfish of 1.7-10 g.


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