Weakly supervised semantic segmentation for MRI: exploring the advantages and disadvantages of class activation maps for biological image segmentation with soft boundaries
Journal : Scientific Reports , vol. 13 , p. 1–13–12 , 2023
Publisher : Springer Nature
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 2045-2322
Electronic : 2045-2322
Publication type : Academic article
Issue : 1
ARKIV : hdl.handle.net/11250/3052214
DOI : doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-296...
Quality and measurement methods
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Fully supervised semantic segmentation models require pixel-level annotations that are costly to obtain. As a remedy, weakly supervised semantic segmentation has been proposed, where image-level labels and class activation maps (CAM) can detect discriminative regions for specific class objects. In this paper, we evaluated several CAM methods applied to different convolutional neural networks (CNN) to highlight tissue damage of cod fillets with soft boundaries in MRI. Our results show that different CAM methods produce very different CAM regions, even when applying them to the same CNN model. CAM methods that claim to highlight more of the class object do not necessarily highlight more damaged regions or originate from the same high discriminatory regions, nor do these damaged regions show high agreement across the different CAM methods. Additionally, CAM methods produce damaged regions that do not align with external reference metrics, and even show correlations contrary to what can be expected.