Published 2022

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Publication details

Journal : Foods , vol. 11 , 2022

Publisher : MDPI

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 2304-8158
Electronic : 2304-8158

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Waqas Qazi, Muhammad; de Sousa, Ines Goncalves; Nunes, Maria Cristiana; Raymundo, Anabela

Issue : 3

Research areas

Raw material knowledge

Food from new sources

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Kjetil Aune
Chief Librarian


Microalgae are an enormous source of nutrients that can be utilized to enrich common food of inherently low nutritional value, such as gluten-free (GF) bread. Addition of the algae species: Tetraselmis chuii (Tc), Chlorella vulgaris (Cv), and Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) biomass led to a significant increase in proteins, lipids, minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn), and antioxidant activity. Although, a compromise on dough rheology and consequential sensory properties was observed. To address this, ethanol treatment of the biomass was necessary to eliminate pigments and odor compounds, which resulted in the bread receiving a similar score as the control during sensory trials. Ethanol treatment also resulted in increased dough strength depicted by creep/recovery tests. Due to the stronger dough structure, more air bubbles were trapped in the dough resulting in softer breads (23–65%) of high volume (12–27%) vs. the native algae biomass bread. Breads baked with Ng and Cv resulted in higher protein-enrichment than the Tc, while Tc enrichment led to an elevated mineral content, especially the Ca, which was six times higher than the other algae species. Overall, Ng, in combination with ethanol treatment, yielded a highly nutritious bread of improved technological and sensory properties, indicating that this species might be a candidate for functional GF bread development.

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