Salmon in closed containment facilities need artificial lighting. Trials show that LED lighting is suitable, and that a light intensity higher than 0,25 μmol/m2/s does not affect the fish's growth and survival in the RAS facility.
So far, the existing lighting conditions for salmon in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) appear to be safe in terms of growth and mortality rates.
“However, we still know little about how the light affects salmon physiology and how they cope with the change in lighting condition after transfer to sea water”, says Jelena Kolarevic, Nofima Senior Scientist and project leader for CtrlAQUA’s research into light.
Different conditions in RAS and netpens
There is little existing research on what the optimum light intensity and quality in RAS should be. Nevertheless, white LED lighting has become widespread in closed containment systems on land. Very often RAS are managed without in-loop disinfection which means that more particles and organic substances are present in the water preventing the light from penetrating the water column. In sea-based netpen systems, daylight and clearer water represent the natural conditions where blue light penetrates the deepest, while red and yellow light is more common in recirculated water due to the accumulation of substances like humic and fulvic acids. The insights from netpen farming are therefore not directly applicable for the conditions in RAS.
The CtrlAQUA scientists have looked into how the use of white and full-spectrum LED light affects salmon post-smolt in RAS and how the water quality affects light penetration. Light is traditionally used in salmon farming to regulate the timing for smoltification.
Challenging in big deep tanks
Based on experience from commercial RAS facilities, the scientists selected two light intensities (0,25 and 1,9 µmol/m2/s) and two light qualities (white LED and full-spectrum LED). Post-smolt, i.e. salmon that have passed the smolt stage, were illuminated for 90 days, after which the scientists measured the water quality and salmon growth and mortality.
The results showed that a light intensity higher than 0,25 μmol/m2/s does not affect the fish’s growth and survival in the RAS facility.
The industry is looking into the minimum light intensity required for optimum growing conditions in order to cut costs. However, challenges still exist such as understanding the effect of light intensity below 0,25 µmol/m2/s. Further research is needed:
“In the current large tanks with a depth of up to five metres, it will be difficult for the fish farmer to be able to distribute the light evenly without major investments. It’s a challenge the industry has begun to look into,” says Kolarevic.
Nofima is boosting its commitment to further develop knowledge for closed containment aquaculture.
Nofima has unique facilities for doing research in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Take a look at what makes Nofima’s research relevant in future aquaculture industry:
CtrlAQUA is a centre for research-driven innovation (SFI), which shall develop technological and biological innovations that will make closed-containment aquaculture systems a reliable and economically viable technology in aquaculture. The Norwegian institute Nofima is the host institution, and there are six research partners from Norway, Sweden and the United States, as well as 14 industry partners. CtrlAQUA is co-financed by the Research Council of Norway and its partners, and shall operate from 2015 to 2023.
Centre for Research-Based Innovation in Closed-Containment Aquaculture
CtrlAQUA is a Centre for Research-based Innovation (SFI) that will lay the foundation for the development of closed-containment concepts of the future. With greater control of the production process, it will be possible to reduce problems associated with mortality and sea lice, and to reduce the production time for farmed salmon.
About SFI: www.forskningsradet.no