Journal : Genetics , vol. 174 , p. 455–464–10 , 2006
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 0016-6731
Electronic : 1943-2631
Publication type : Academic article
Issue : September
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In goat milk the most abundant proteins are the casein genes, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3. Mutations have been identified within these genes affecting the level of gene expression, and effects on milk production traits have been reported. The aim of this study was to detect polymorphisms (SNPs) in the casein genes of Norwegian goats, resolve haplotype structures within the loci, and assess the effect of these haplotypes on milk production traits. Four hundred thirty-six Norwegian bucks were genotyped for 39 polymorphic sites across the four loci. The numbers of unique haplotypes present in each locus were 10, 6, 4, and 8 for CSN1S1, CSN2, CSNIS2, and CSN3, respectively. The effects of the CSN1S1 haplotypes on protein percentage and fat kilograms were significant, as were the effects of CSN3 haplotypes on fat percentage and protein percentage. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, unique to the Norwegian goat population, explained the effects of CSN1S1 haplotypes on fat kilograms, but not protein percentage. Investigation of linkage disequilibrium between all possible pairs of SNPs revealed higher levels of linkage disequilbrium for SNP pairs within casein loci than for SNP pairs between casein loci, likely reflecting low levels of intragenic recombination. Further, there was evidence for a site of preferential recombination between CSN2 and CSNIS2. The value of the haplotypes for haplotype-assisted selection (HAS) is discussed.