Published 2006

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Publication details

Journal : Aquaculture , vol. 261 , p. 80–88–9 , 2006

Publisher : Elsevier

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 0044-8486
Electronic : 1873-5622

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Martens, Laura Gil; Witten, P.Eckhard; Fivelstad, Sveinung; Huysseune, Ann; Sævareid, Bjarte; Vikeså, Vibeke; Obach, A

Issue : 1

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The role of high carbon dioxide (CO"2) levels on fish performance, bone structure/composition and as a potential cause of spinal deformities was studied. Two groups of fish were exposed to a low (control) and a high level of CO"2 for 135 days during the freshwater period. After smoltification, the fish were transferred to seawater and followed up for 517 days until they reached harvest weight (3.1 kg BW). Differences in body weight between the control and high CO"2 groups were observed. At the end of the freshwater period, average weight in the group exposed to high CO"2 levels was 20.9% lower than in the control group. Specific growth rates (SGR) from the start of the experiment (10 g BW) to smolt stage were 1.63+/-0.04 and 1.36+/-0.01 for the control group and the high CO"2 group, respectively. Differences in body weight were maintained during the initial stages of the seawater period, but were not observed at harvest weight. Nephrocalcinosis was not observed in any of the experimental groups at the end of the freshwater period and no external signs of spinal deformities were observed either at smolt stage or at harvest weight. X-rays revealed mild abnormalities in some vertebrae bodies, which could not be related to any experimental group. Despite the lack of signs of pathological bone alterations, the histological examination suggested that the exposure to high CO"2levels resulted in an increase in trabeculae volume and a higher rate of bone remodeling at the end of the freshwater period. Furthermore, fish exposed to a high CO"2 level presented a higher bone ash content at the end of the freshwater period. These differences could not be observed at the end of the grow-out period.