Journal : Aquaculture , vol. 261 , p. 829–841 , 2006
Publisher : Elsevier
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 0044-8486
Electronic : 1873-5622
Publication type : Academic article
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Populations of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) fed three different diets, fish meal, standard or a bioprocessed soybean meal (BPSBM), were estimated using the dilution plate technique. A total of 944 isolates were characterised by biochemical and physiological properties and 425 isolates were identified further by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. Our results showed that gut microbiota were affected by dietary manipulation. The GI tract of fish fed fish meal was dominated by Grain-positive bacteria of the genera Brochothrix and Carnobacterium. The Gram-negative bacteria Chryseobacterium spp. and Psychrobacter glacincola, and Gram-positive bacteria belonging to Carnobacterium, dominated in the digestive tract of fish fed soybean meal. In contrast to these results, genus Psychrobacter dominated in the GI tract when fish were fed BPSBM.
Until recently, it was generally suggested that the gut microbiota of fish were less diverse than in homoeothermic animals. However, the present study identified several "new" bacterial species isolated from the alimentary tract of Atlantic cod. These "new" bacterial species are not normally isolated from the GI tract of fish. Based on our finding we suggest that the GI tract microbiota of fish might not be as simple as believed.
Antagonistic activity of carnobacteria regarding inhibition of growth of two fish pathogens (Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida and Vibrio anguillarum) was observed. However, some difference in the antibacterial activity of Carnobacterium spp. was observed. Whether this antagonistic activity has any effect in challenge studies will be discussed, especially in relation to the finding that the digestive tract is one of the major infection routes in fish. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.