Published 2006

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Publication details

Journal : Lipids , vol. 41 , p. 1109–1114 , 2006

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 0024-4201
Electronic : 1558-9307

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Elvevoll, Edel Oddny; Barstad, Harald; Breimo, Einar Sigurd; Brox, Jan; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Lund, Trine; Olsen, Jan Ole; Østerud, Bjarne

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Kjetil Aune
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This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B-4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B-2 (TxB(2)) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNF alpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB(2), and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.