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Published 2008

Read in Norwegian

Publication details

Journal : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , vol. 56 , p. 11540–11549 , 2008

Publisher : American Chemical Society (ACS)

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 0021-8561
Electronic : 1520-5118

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Holaas, Eivind; Bohne, Berdikova J. Victoria; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

If you have questions about the publication, you may contact Nofima’s Chief Librarian.

Kjetil Aune
Chief Librarian


The human safety aspects of seafood production require the expansion of vital knowledge of both
nutrients and possible contaminants along the entire production chain. Thus, production of safer
seafood can be achieved by using feed materials that are low in contaminants, while maintaining
balanced nutrition, in order to secure optimal fish and consumer health. Our understanding of primary
responses of fish health and production related diseases, as well as biological processes that influence
carry-over and lowering of contaminants in farmed fish, will contribute to a sustainable production of
safer seafood products. Therefore, we have studied the liver deposition and toxicological effects in
salmon fed graded levels of BHT during a 12-week feeding followed by a 2-week depuration period
using chemical, molecular, and catalytic assays. In general, our data showed that BHT was significantly
retained in the liver and selectively modulated toxicological responses in the xenobiotic biotransformation
pathways during the feeding period. Specifically, BHT produced consistent dose- and timespecific
gene expression patterns for AhR2R, AhR2 , CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT1, and GSTπ. The effect
of BHT on the gene expression of biotransformation enzyme did not parallel enzyme activity levels,
suggesting a possible inhibition by parent BHT or its metabolites. As a safety precaution, the production
of farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway requires a mandatory 2-week depuration period prior to
slaughtering and market delivery to ensure the elimination of veterinary medicaments, additives, and
other undesirable components. Comparison of feeding and depuration periods showed that BHT
was highly retained in fish liver, as only 8-13% of fed BHT was eliminated during the 2-week
depuration period. This is just a part of the total concentration in the whole fish, since BHT may have
been distributed and accumulated in other organs. Since BHT or its metabolites putatively inhibited
biotransformation enzymes and affected metabolism of the compound, they may have potential for
toxicological and adverse health effects for both fish and fish consumers through carry-over processes
from the fish products.