Published 2023

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Publication details

Journal : Aquaculture International , vol. 31 , p. 3457–3472–0 , 2023

Publisher : Springer

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 0967-6120
Electronic : 1573-143X

Publication type : Academic article

Contributors : Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Swain, Trilochan; Tveiten, Helge; Hansen, Øyvind Johannes; Mortensen, Atle

Research areas

Farmed fish

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Kjetil Aune
Chief Librarian


Larval cod require live prey as food, and prey concentration (PC) and feeding frequency (FF) often affect their growth and survival. Apart from this, water exchange rates/water flow (WER/WF) and water current (WC) also affect the prey resident time in the tank and larval/early juvenile behaviour, respectively. High water current is also known to induce stress in finfish larvae, and this stress response is believed to be dependent on larval developmental stage. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate three larval rearing protocols varying in prey concentration, feeding frequency, and water current/exchange rate. Three protocols were used: low prey concentration (PC), low feeding frequency (FF), and low water flow (protocol 1); medium PC, medium FF, and medium WF (protocol 2); and high PC, high FF, and high WF (protocol 3) (see Table 1). Larvae were sampled periodically for growth and cortisol measurements. Cortisol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were conducted using methods previously validated for cod larvae. Larvae reared using protocols 2 and 3 were significantly bigger and heavier than larvae reared using protocol 1. Rearing protocol had a significant effect on the cortisol level in larval cod. Larvae showed a developmental stage-dependent stress response. Protocol 2 had significantly higher survival than protocols 1 and 3. Our results indicate that an intermediate PC, FF, and WF (protocol 2) is suitable during cod larval rearing.