Published 2021

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Publication details

Publisher : Nofima AS

International Standard Numbers :
Printed : 978-82-8296-698-6

Publication type : Nofima’s reports

Contributors : Bæverfjord, Grete; Dalum, Alf Seljenes; Høst, Vibeke; Krasnov, Aleksei; Grøntvedt, Randi; Johansen, Renate; Reed, Anne-Katrine; Aas-Eng, Anne; Kvellestad, Agnar; Bjørgen, Håvard; Trangerud, Cathrine; Ottesen, Nina; Skogmo, Hege Klippenes; Koppang, Erling Olav; Ytteborg, Elisabeth

Series : Nofima rapportserie 35/2021

Year : 2021

Research areas

Farmed fish

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Kjetil Aune
Chief Librarian


The project addressed a new type of vertebral deformities in Atlantic salmon, called “cross-stitch” vertebrae. Analysis of production data showed that vaccine was a major risk factor, and that 0+ smolts were more affected than 1+. On histology, a ring-formed defect in vertebral endplates was found in vertebrae with typical lesions, located close to vertebral centra. The link to vaccination was confirmed in a long-term fish experiment, and typical lesions were found in fish groups vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted vaccines which included a PD-component. Initial in vitro studies indicated that cell culture may be a useful future approach to this problem.


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