Journal : Food Hydrocolloids , vol. 18 , p. 757–767 , 2004
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 0268-005X
Electronic : 1873-7137
Publication type : Academic article
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38 model dressings were produced according to a fractional factorial design. Dressings prepared with hydrolysed whey protein concentrate (DH 1 with Corolase PN-L from RöhmGmbH) were compared to dressings produced with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and purified -lactoglobulin (-LG) as emulsifiers. The dressings were produced in a high-pressure homogeniser at ~70 kPa pressure. The factors varied were protein%, oil%, pH, process temperature, and in addition NaCl, CaCl2 and sucrose.
The dressings were evaluated with regard to textural and structural properties by emulsion stability (ES), rheological measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis.
The dressings produced spanned from thin milk-like liquids to thick pastes. WPC formed mainly thin dressings, while dressings produced by hydrolysate and ß-LG were mainly creamy. None of the dressings showed separation of the oil phase, however some syneresis of water was observed. Variation in protein and oil content affected the stability of the dressings. When the protein content was increased from 2 to 4% and the oil content from 5 to 30 %, the hydrolysate and -LG dressings became more stable, in contrast to WPC dressings, which became less stable. Addition of sucrose increased the stability and the phase angle of all protein types.
High processing temperature (75C) affected the dressings differently. A positive effect was observed on the stability of WPC and ß-LG dressings, while hydrolysate dressings showed reduced stability, except for the combination of low pH (4.0), high protein (4%) and fat content (30%). This dressing was highly stable at high processing temperature. SEM-images revealed that the fat globule size was smallest for WPC (0.1-0.9um) and increased in the order WPC<hydrolysate<ß-LG. The microstructure of WPC dressing showed homogenous, non-aggregated structure in contrast to hydrolysate and ß-LG dressing, which shoved highly ordered, aggregated structure which supports the rheological measurements for gel formation.