Sensory qualities of plain white pan bread: Influence of farming system, year of harvest and baking technique
Journal : Journal of Cereal Science , vol. 43 , p. 15–30 , 2006
International Standard Numbers
Printed : 0733-5210
Electronic : 1095-9963
Publication type : Academic article
DOI : doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.04....
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The sensory qualities of products from sustainable production systems are not well known, but important for development of such systems. To understand how wheat growing systems and baking processes influence white bread quality, six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var.Ebi) from field trials harvested in two consecutive years, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems (biodynamic and ecological), were milled on the Bühler laboratory mill. Flours were extracted to a fixed ash content (0.48% dmb) and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of twenty one bread types were baked: twelve according to the farinographic data and nine according to modified recipes. Ten selected and trained assessors completed a sensory analysis (a descriptive profiling test) with three replicates using seventeen sensory attributes. The slice area was established using image analysis. There were no differences in slice area between bread baked with conventionally or organically grown bread baked with organically grown wheat harvested in 1999, yet there were differences in 2000, such that slice area was larger for the conventional samples. The effect of year was greater than the effect of farming system or recipe modification, and differences in the sensory data was explained more by texture than by aroma and flavour attributes. Breads baked with wheat harvested in 1999 had significantly lower intensity of crumb attributes such as elasticity, smoothness and juiciness, but higher rancid flavour, springiness, compressibility, mastication resistance and lower colour intensity, as well as higher crust toughness, than did breads baked with wheat harvested in 2000. Breads baked with conventional flour had significantly higher elasticity and juiciness than breads baked with organic flour. Several interactions between year and farming system were revealed.